Chen, WY, Wight, DC, Mehta, BV, Wagner, TE and Kopchick, JJ. Glycine 119 of bovine growth hormone is critical for growth promoting activity. Mol. Endocrinology, 5, 1845-1852, 1991.

Chen WY, Ramamoorthy P, Chen N, Sticca R, Wagner TE. A human prolactin antagonist, hPRL-G129R, inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation through induction of apoptosis. Clin. Cancer Res. 5, 3583-93, 1999.

Chen NY, Holle L, Li W, Peirce SK, Beck MT, Chen WY. In vivo studies of the anti-tumor effects of a human prolactin antagonist, hPRL-G129R. Internatl J Oncol, 20:813-818, 2002.

Beck MT, Peirce SK and Chen WY. Regulation of bcl-2 gene expression in human breast cancer cells by prolactin and its antagonist, hPRL-G129R. Oncogene 21, 5047-55, 2002.

Zhang GR, Li W, Holle H, Chen NY and Chen WY. A novel design of targeted endocrine and cytokine therapy for human breast cancer. Clin. Cancer Res., 8:1196-1205, 2002.

Beck MT, Chen, NY, Franek K and Chen WY. Prolactin Antagonist Endostatin Fusion Protein as A Targeted Dual Functional Therapeutic Agent for Breast Cancer. Cancer Res., 63:3598-3604, 2003.

Peirce S and Chen WY. Human prolactin and its antagonist, hPRL-G129R, regulate bax and bcl-2 gene expression in human breast cancer cells and transgenic mice. Oncogene 23:1248–1255, 2004.

Langenheim JF. and Chen WY. Development of a Prolactin Receptor-Targeting Fusion Toxin Using a Prolactin Antagonist and a Recombinant Form of Pseudomonas Exotoxin A. Breast Cancer Res. and Treatment. 90:281-93, 2005.

Langenheim JF. Tan D, Walker AM and Chen WY. Two wrongs can make a right: dimers of human prolactin and growth hormone antagonists behave as agonists. Mol Endocrinol. 20(3):661-74, 2006.

Scotti ML, Langenheim JF, Tomblyn S, Springs AE, Chen WY. Additive effects of a prolactin receptor antagonist, G129R, and Herceptin on inhibition of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 111(2):241-50, 2007.

Background on Prolactin and Cancer

Levina, V.V., B. Nolen, Y. Su, A.K. Godwin, D. Fishman, J. Liu, G. Mor, L.G. Maxwell, R.B. Herberman, M.J. Szczepanski, M.E. Szajnik, E. Gorelik, and A.E. Lokshin. Biological significance of prolactin in gynecologic cancers. Cancer Res 69(12): p. 5226-33, 2009.

Ben-Jonathan, N., K. Liby, M. McFarland, and M. Zinger. Prolactin as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor in human cancer. Trends Endocrinol Metab 13(6): p. 245-50, 2002. 

Prolactin Induces Resistance to Chemotherapy

LaPensee, E.W., S.J. Schwemberger, C.R. LaPensee, M. Bahassi el, S.E. Afton, and N. Ben-Jonathan.Prolactin confers resistance against cisplatin in breast cancer cells by activating glutathione-S-transferase. Carcinogenesis 30(8): p. 1298-304, 2009.

Godwin, A.K., A. Meister, P.J. O'Dwyer, C.S. Huang, T.C. Hamilton, and M.E. Anderson. High resistance to cisplatin in human ovarian cancer cell lines is associated with marked increase of glutathione synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(7): p. 3070-4, 1992. 

Wen, Y., B. Zand, B. Ozpolat, M.J. Szczepanski, C. Lu, E. Yuca, A.R. Carroll, N. Alpay, C. Bartholomeusz, I. Tekedereli, Y. Kang, R. Rupaimoole, C.V. Pecot, H.J. Dalton, A. Hernandez, A. Lokshin, S.K. Lutgendorf, J. Liu, W.N. Hittelman, W.Y. Chen, G. Lopez-Berestein, M. Szajnik, N.T. Ueno, R.L. Coleman, and A.K. Sood. Antagonism of tumoral prolactin receptor promotes autophagy-related cell death. Cell Rep 7(2): p. 488-500, 2014).

Publications by Founding Scientists

Chen, WY, Wight, DC, Wagner, TE and Kopchick, JJ. Expression of a mutated bovine growth hormone gene suppresses growth of transgenic mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 87, 5061-5065, 1990.

Chen, WY, Wight, DC, Chen, NY, Wagner, TE, and Kopchick, JJ. Mutations in the third alpha-helix of bovine growth hormone dramatically affect its intracellular distribution in vitro and growth enhancement in transgenic mice. J. Biol. Chem., 266, 2252-2258, 1991.

Chen, WY, White, ME, Wagner, TE and Kopchick, JJ. Functional antagonism between endogenous mouse growth hormone (GH) and a GH analog results in transgenic dwarf mice. Endocrinology, 129, 1402-1408, 1991.